Understanding molecular mechanisms that dictate B cell diversity is important for targeting B cells as anti-cancer treatment. Through the single-cell dissection of B cell heterogeneity in longitudinal samples of patients with breast cancer before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we revealed that an ICOSL + B cell subset emerges after chemotherapy. Using three immunocompetent mouse models, we recapitulated the subset switch of human tumor-infiltrating B cells during chemotherapy. By employing B-cell-specific deletion mice, we showed that ICOSL in B cells boosts anti-tumor immunity by enhancing the effector to regulatory T cell ratio. The signature of ICOSL + B cells is imprinted by complement-CR2 signaling, which is triggered by immunogenic cell death. Moreover, we identified that CD55, a complement inhibitory protein, determines the opposite roles of B cells in chemotherapy. Collectively, we demonstrated a critical role of the B cell subset switch in chemotherapy response, which has implications in designing novel anti-cancer therapies.