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Biallelic loss of BCMA as a resistance mechanism to CAR T cell therapy in a patient with multiple myeloma
Samur, Mehmet Kemal and Fulciniti, Mariateresa and Samur, Anil Aktas and Bazarbachi, Abdul Hamid and Tai, Yu-Tzu and Prabhala, Rao and Alonso, Alejandro and Sperling, Adam S and Campbell, Timothy and Petrocca, Fabio and others
BCMA targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has shown deep and durable responses in multiple myeloma. However, relapse following therapy is frequently observed, and mechanisms of resistance remain ill-defined. Here, we perform single cell genomic characterization of longitudinal samples from a patient who relapsed after initial CAR T cell treatment with lack of response to retreatment. We report selection, following initial CAR T cell infusion, of a clone with biallelic loss of BCMA acquired by deletion of one allele and a mutation that creates an early stop codon on the second allele. This loss leads to lack of CAR T cell proliferation following the second infusion and is reflected by lack of soluble BCMA in patient serum. Our analysis suggests the need for careful detection of BCMA gene alterations in multiple myeloma cells from relapse following CAR T cell therapy.