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Single-cell sequencing of the human midbrain reveals glial activation and a neuronal state specific to Parkinson’s disease (Non-corrected batch effects)
S. Smajic, C. A. Prada-Medina, Z. Landoulsi, C. Dietrich, J. Jarazo, J. Henck, S. Balachandran, S. Pachchek, C. M. Morris, P. Antony, B. Timmermann, S. Sauer, J. C. Schwamborn, P. May, A. Grunewald, M. Spielmann
Parkinson’s disease (PD) etiology is associated with genetic and environmental factors that lead to a loss of dopaminergic neurons. However, the functional interpretation of PD-associated risk variants and how other midbrain cells contribute to this neurodegenerative process are poorly understood. Here, we profiled >41,000 single-nuclei transcriptomes of postmortem midbrain tissue from 6 idiopathic PD (IPD) patients and 5 matched controls. We show that PD-risk variants are associated with glia- and neuron-specific gene expression patterns. Furthermore, Microglia and astrocytes presented IPD-specific cell proliferation and dysregulation of genes related to unfolded protein response and cytokine signalling. IPD-microglia revealed a specific pro-inflammatory trajectory. Finally, we discovered a neuronal cell cluster exclusively present in IPD midbrains characterized by CADPS2 overexpression and a high proportion of cycling cells. We conclude that elevated CADPS2 expression is specific to dysfunctional dopaminergic neurons, which have lost their dopaminergic identity and unsuccessful attempt to re-enter the cell cycle.